Katedra Najswietszej Panny Paryskiej. Dzwonnik z Notre-Dame – Notre-Dame de Paris 1482. The Hunchback of Notre Dame

Autor: HugoVictor
Wydawnictwo: Armoryka
Rozmiar 2,3 MB
Format: MOBI


Katedra Najswietszej Marii Panny w Paryzu – powiesc Wiktora Hugo znana w Polsce rowniez pod tytulem „Dzwonnik z Notre-Dame”, osadzona w czasach poznego sredniowiecza. Wedlug slow samego autora, jest to „obraz pietnastowiecznego Paryza i calego pietnastego wieku przez pryzmat tego miasta”. Osia powiesci jest watek milosny archidiakona Klaudiusza Frollo do pieknej Cyganki Esmeraldy. Ksiazka wydana w 1831 roku porusza nietypowe jak na tamte czasy problemy zgubnego pozadania i tolerancji. W powiesci nie ma nic bialego ani czarnego, sa tylko odcienie szarosci. Nie ma tez tu jednoznacznie zlej postaci, a nawet okrutne czyny Frolla mozna zrozumiec i budzi on wspolczucie, a nawet sympatie czytelnika. Ksiazka zostala napisana pod wplywem odnalezienia przez autora greckiego napisu „??А???” („Przeznaczenie”) na scianie Katedry Notre-Dame.

Notre-Dame de Paris releve du genre du roman historique, qui est a la mode au debut du XIXe siecle16, de meme que la periode du Moyen Age qui suscite un interet nouveau de la part des ecrivains et des poetes a partir des annees 1820, sous l’impulsion d’auteurs comme Chateaubriand ou Madame de Stael. Le chapitre "Paris a vol d’oiseauH" , en particulier, presente une tentative de reconstitution historique du Paris de 1482. Mais Victor Hugo ne se considere pas comme tenu de respecter la verite historique a tout prix et n’hesite pas a modifier le detail des faits et a resserrer l’intrigue pour faire mieux ressortir le caractere de personnages historiques comme Louis XI ou pour mettre en avant sa vision de l’Histoire. En cela, il applique a son roman les principes exposes dans un article "A propos de Walter Scott" qu’il a publie en 1823, et ou il affirme: "j’aime mieux croire au roman qu’a l’histoire, parce que je prefere la verite morale a la verite historique" .

The novel’s original French title, Notre-Dame de Paris (the formal title of the Cathedral) indicates that the Cathedral itself is the most significant aspect of the novel, both the main setting and the focus of the story’s themes. With the notable exception of Phoebus and Esmeralda’s meeting, almost every major event in the novel takes place within, atop, and around the outside of the cathedral, and also can be witnessed by a character standing within, atop, and around the outside of the cathedral. The Cathedral had fallen into disrepair at the time of writing, which Hugo wanted to point out. The book portrays the Gothic era as one of the extremes of architecture, passion, and religion. The theme of determinism (fate and destiny) is explored as well as revolution and social strife. The severe distinction of the social classes is shown by the relationships of Quasimodo and Esmeralda with higher-caste people in the book. Readers can also see a variety of modern themes emanating from the work including nuanced views on gender dynamics. For example, Phoebus objectifies Esmeralda as a sexual object. And, while Esmeralda is frequently cited as a paragon of purity – this is certainly how Quasimodo sees her – she is nonetheless seen to create her own objectification of the archer captain, Phoebus, that is at odds with readers’ informed view of the man.

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